This is probably more properly termed as beer styles. One of the last list I saw had about 80 different styles of beers. This short list is the most common ones I have run into at brewpubs.
Pilsner – A modern pilsner is a type of pale lager. It has a very light, clear color from pale to golden yellow. It uses a partially malted barley, giving it a lighter flavor. It is brew cold. Most larger volume produced beers like Bud light are a pilsner.
Pale Ale – is a beer that uses a warm fermentation and predominantly pale malt. It is usually lightly hopped.
Amber Ale – is a term used in Australia, France and North America for pale ales brewed with a proportion of crystal malt to produce an amber color generally ranging from light copper to light brown. A small amount of crystal or other colored malt is added to the basic pale ale base to produce a slightly darker color, In North America, American-variety hops are used in varying degrees of bitterness, although very few examples are particularly hoppy.
Blonde Ales – are very pale in color. The term Blonde for pale beers is popular in Europe – particularly in France, Belgium and the UK, though the beers may not have much in common, other than color. Blondes tend to be clear, crisp, and dry, with low-to-medium bitterness and aroma from hops, and some sweetness from malt. Fruitiness from esters may be perceived.
Red Ales – In the United States, the name can describe a darker amber ale or a red beer that is a lager with caramel coloring.
India Pale Ale or IPA – is a style of pale ale developed in England for export to India. The first known use of the expression India pale ale is in an advertisement in the Liverpool Mercury of January 30, 1835.
Stout and Porter – are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow fermenting yeast. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name Porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer popular with the street and river porters of London. This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677. The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined.
Wheat beer – is brewed with a large proportion of wheat although it often also contains a significant proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually top-fermented (in Germany they have to be by law). The flavor of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style. Hefeweizen is a wheat beer.